Leanna Wolfe Summer 2006
Chapter 5 – Religious Specialists
T/F Amongst a small-scale society like the Ju/hoansi full time religious specialists do not exist.
2. Under what conditions might someone be a part-time religious specialist?
3. What’s the difference between a priest and a shaman?
4. T/F Priests are expected to live exemplary lives in regard to ethical and moral conduct.
5. T/F Some people may enter the priesthood as the result of a divine call type experience.
6. T/F Shamans typically receive their power directly from the spirit world.
7. T/F Like priests shamans are full time community specialists.
8. T/F Shamans are often regarded with suspicion.
9. How do Shamans learn their craft?
10. T/F In traditional societies sexually ambiguous people often became shamans.
11. T/F Korean shamans are mostly men.
12. What are examples of things diviners might foretell?
13. T/F A prophet is a mouthpiece of the gods.
14. Who was Handsome Lake?
15. What are some of the ways that Ngundeng, a 19th c. Nuer prophet exhibited his power?
a. caused the death of a relative who denied him meat b. those who refused his demands soon died c. sacrificed an ox before a critical battle which is seen as the reason his side won d. caused women to lose their fertility e. brought on a plague of small pox
2. T/F New Age groups have shown little interest in ayahuasca.
3. What does ayahuasca taste like?
4. T/F Amazonian youth of today are more interested in pop culture than they are in shamanism.
5. T/F Ayahuasca journeys are typically relaxing and enjoyable.
6. T/F Ayahuasca functions to free the soul from the body.
7. Ayahuasca has been used for: (select those that apply)
prophecy b. healing c. divination d. sorcery e. Healing
8. T/F Shamans endeavor to maintain a balance between the real world and the spirit world.
9. T/F Western medicine recognizes the therapeutic benefits of spirituality.
10. T/F Nearly every plant species that has been adopted by Western medicine was originally discovered and utilized by indigenous cultures.
11. T/F Different parts of the ayahuasca vine produce different kinds of visions.
12. T/F Western medicine has not found any use for ayahuasca.
13. T/F Shamans have little information about plants that are not hallucinogens.
14. Should indigenous peoples hold intellectual property rights for the information they know about botanical substances?
15. T/F Often botanical substances used by shamans only work within a specific cultural context.
16. When did shamanistic practices first appear?
Eyes of the Ngangas
T/F The Ngando are a pygmy society.
2. T/F The Aka and the Ngando have a symbiotic relationship.
3. Who are the ngangas?
4. T/F Amongst the Ngando, a nganga can be either male or female.
5. T/F First born sons often become ngangas.
6. How does a nganga apprentice acquire power in his eyes?
7. The Ngando most frequently claim____is the cause of illness.
a. malnutrition b. illnesses of God c. poisoning d. witchcraft
8. Which of the following are considered basic causes of disease throughout the Non-Western World? (pick as many as appropriate)
sorcery b. breach of taboo c. intrusion of a disease object d. loss of soul
9. T/F Aka ngangas are often regarded as superior healers.
10. Under what conditions would a Ngando farmer go to a nganga instead of a Medical doctor?
11. Which of the following countries has the highest rate of recovery amongst patients suffering from psychotic disturbances?
America b. Denmark c. China d. Nigeria e. Mexico
12. Why are cultural beliefs important in determining causes and treatments of disease and mental disorders?
A School for Medicine Men
1. What are the three types of Navajo medical practitioners described by Bergman?
2. How and why do Navajo healers involve families of their patients?
3. What are the benefits of establishing a moratorium/ending point for bringing about a cure?
4. By what means do Navajo shamans diagnose illness?
5. Why might a psychiatrist refer patients to a medicine man? Why might a medicine man refer patients to a psychiatrist?