Leanna Wolfe Summer 2006
Chapter 7 – Souls, Ghosts, and Death
1. The belief in souls is likely derived from the experience of: (select those that apply)
a. dreams b. hallucinations c. fainting
2. In some societies souls may be acquired during one’s lifetime, such as through a vision. This is found among the:
a. Jivaro b. Yanomamö c. Shoshoni d. Beng
3. T/F In some societies one’s soul is in one’s shadow or in one’s reflection in a mirror.
4. The term transmigration refers to:
a. the attainment of new souls through visions
b. the movement of souls from one person into another
c. the soul being reborn into the body of an animal
d. the soul moving from one afterlife to another
5. A ghost can best be thought of as:
a. a dead person brought to life through magic b. a soul that remains in the world of the living c. an evil spirit or deity d. none of these
6. Descriptions of vampires are based upon:
a. early folk tales found in eastern Europe b. descriptions of invaders that overran eastern Europe from Asia during the 14th and 15th centuries c. observations made of corpses that were exhumed several months after burial d. observations made of recently executed criminals
7. T/F In most societies, the fate of the soul after death depends upon the behavior of the individual when living.
8. Death rituals or funerals serve many purposes among which is (are):
a. channeling the expressions of grief b. determining the fate of the soul
c. protecting the community from ghosts d. all of these
9. The custom of drinking the cremated ashes of the dead is found among the:
a. Yanomamö b. Jivaro c. Berawan d. Nuer
10. The earliest examples of the American custom of embalming and the establishment of the first military cemeteries took place during the:
a. Revolutionary War b. French and Indian War c. Civil War d. World War I
11. American mortuary customs are characterized by:
discomfort on the part of those attending the funeral b. restrained expressions of grief c. restoration of the body to lifelike appearance for purposes of display d. all of these
12. T/F In Roman Catholicism, souls travel to one of two places: Heaven or Hell.
13. T/FAmong the Dani a major function of a funeral is to appease ghosts.
14.T/F Examples of endocannibalistic anthropophagers are the Yanomamö and the Fore.
15. T/F The Day of the Dead (Dia de los Muertos) in Mexico was a time when ghosts and evil spirits returned to take revenge on the living.
16. Describe the development of Halloween as an example of syncretism.
New Weapon Stirs Up Old Ghosts
1. Discuss the relationship between Wape ancestral ghosts and the shotgun cult.
2. In the Wape shotgun cult it is important not to quarrel because quarreling:
a. causes vengeful ancestral ghosts to interfere in human activities b. makes hunters shoot poorly c. is discouraged by Christian missionaries d. scares away animals e. causes malfunctions in the shotgun itself
3. T/F The Wape hunter’s most important hunting aid are his dead male
4. T/F The Wape shotgun cult provides a culturally appropriate explanation
for unsuccessful hunting.
Death Be Not Strange
1. What does a Berawan secondary burial involve? Why is it practiced?
2. Which of the following Berawan beliefs? (select as many as apply)
a. after death the soul is divorced from the body b. souls of the dead undergo a slow metamorphosis c. the soul of the dead cannot reanimate the corpse d. spirits can reanimate a corpse and turn it into a monster
3. What was the Berawan reaction to American mortuary practices?
Spontaneous Memorialization: Death and Mourning
What are some of the ways our society has gained control over death?
2. How long do you expect to live?
3. What are some contemporary examples of unexpected violent death?
4. T/F Spontaneous memorialization is a public response to unanticipated, violent deaths of people who do not fit into categories of those we expect to die.
5. T/F Spontaneous memorializations can replace traditional funerary rites.
6. What are examples of mementos that mourners may bring to sites of death?
7. T/F People who did not know the deceased often participate in spontaneous memorializations.
8. T/F Spontaneous memorializations can be seen as a response to the juxtaposition of violent death in a culture that values human life.
9. T/F It’s rare that a spontaneous memorialization occurs after an event that receives extensive news coverage.
10. Why might mourners seek to visit a site where a spontaneous death occurred?
11. How did the bombing of the Oklahoma City Federal Building violate fundamental American cultural values?
12. How was Selena memorialized?
13. T/F Americans are resigned to the fact that death can occur in a capricious and arbitrary manner.
The Hungry Gods
How might an observers attitude towards death be affected by witnessing a human sacrifice?
2. Why did the Aztecs believe they needed to make human sacrifices?
3. At the height of the Aztec Empire there were______sacrifices per year.
3,000 b. 13,000 c. 25,00 d. 30,000 e. 300,000
4. Who was Moctezuma?
5. What similarities were there between the Aztec worship of Quezacuatl and the Spanish worship of Jesus Christ?
6. What caused the most loss of lives in the New World?
a. Efforts to convert the Indians to Christianity b. European Weaponry
c. Starvation during times of drought d. syphilis e. small pox
What ecological conditions might have set the stage for cannibalism in the New World?