Leanna Wolfe Summer 2006
Ch. 4 Ritual
Why do people carry out religious rituals?
2. Death rituals:
restore social order b. reveal secrets c. create status and boundaries
3. What are the three stages in rites of passage?
1.___________________________ 2. ___________________________
4. The liminal stage can: (select those that apply)
a. include rebellious rites b. the experience of a community amongst equals c. include beatings and other violent behaviors d. counter the existent social order e. be avoided
5. Examples of rites of passage in American society would not include a:
a. wedding ceremony b. funeral c. high school graduation d. Easter sunrise service
What seems to be the symbolic purpose of older Melanesian men instructing younger males to ingest their semen?
7. What is female genital infibulation? When religious benefits does it confer?
8. Examples of prescribed, periodic rituals include all of the following except:
a. Diwali b. Quinceañeras c. Passover d. Ramadan
9. A periodic ritual is one that is:
a. performed because of the will or desire of a deity b. associated with critical events in the life of an individual c. celebrated on a ritual calendar d. involved with an altered state of consciousness
10. A technological ritual is one that is involved with:
a. controlling an aspect of nature such as bringing rain b. moving people into new social categories or statuses c. curing illness and death d. causing the death of an individual
11. Protective rituals are often found in situations:
a. involving soul loss b. that involve the quest for food
c. that are dangerous and unpredictable d. that involve a person’s change in status
12. The Navaho “Blessing Way” is performed, in part, to reestablish harmony with the universe so that an ill person might be cured of the illness. This is an example of a(n):
a. technological ritual b. ideological ritual c. therapy ritual d. revitalization ritual
13. Rituals that reinforce community standards of behavior and cohesiveness are:
a. rites of passage b. social rites of intensification c. revitalization rituals d. salvation rituals
14. T/F Many societies have prohibitions against eating particular foods. An example would be kashrut, the Jewish laws regarding what foods can and cannot be eaten and how they must be prepared.
15. People who share the same experiences forge strong bonds. Describe what is meant by communitas? How does communitas function to create stability in society?
16. Why do soldiers and members of a fraternity frequently place the same tattoo on their bodies?
The Adaptive Value of Religious Ritual
What are some of the behaviors, activities and dress people engage in in the name of religion?
2. Humans have engaged in ritual behavior for at least____years.
3,000 b. 10,000 c. 50,000 d. 100,000 e. 1.5 million
3. T/F Scientific rationalism triumphed over religion by the late 20th century.
4. T/F It is unusual for a human culture to engage in costly rituals.
5. T/F Spiritual beliefs are indicative of a primitive mind.
6. T/F The primary adaptive benefit of religion is to facilitate cooperation in a group.
7. What are some of the ritualistic behaviors that animals engage in?
8. T/F It’s rare for animals send out dishonest signals.
9. What does sending out a costly signal convey?
10. T/F Groups that engage in highly distinct dress and practices tend to have the highest rates of attendance at their prayer services.
11. T/F Fewer American Catholics attend mass today than 40 years ago.
12. How did religious constraints enhance the economic productivity of highly religious kibbutzim?
13. T/F Amongst kibbutzim males engage in fewer public rituals than females.
14. Do more difficult classes have lower attrition rates than easy classes?
Prayer and Healing
1. T/F Patients who were prayed for by strangers showed a statistically significant level
of recovery compared to those who were not.
2. What differences were found between patients who knew they were being prayed for and those who did not?
3. T/F Women attempting to achieve pregnancy through IVF had double the success rate compared to those who were not prayed for?
4.What are the research problems faced by in measuring spiritual experiences with scientific methodologies?
5. If God is omniscient and omnipotent, should he be reminded that someone needs his assistance?